Green Intellectual Property
The damage to the environment has over the last decade or so been a topic of paramount importance. Changes to the same can now be felt closer to home rather than in some remote corner of the globe. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a report in 2021 stating that climate change is “widespread, rapid, and intensifying”. We are at the precipice of an important stage in the history of our planet. Never before has technology reached the levels that we have now. It is time to optimally harness technology to protect the environment to sustain future generations. With the literature currently in the media, there is definitely awareness of the damage being caused.
Green technology and innovation thereof will be of paramount importance, and Intellectual Property (IP) rights play a major role. The term ‘Green Intellectual Property’ refers to the protection of innovations in the field of green technology. The UN Rio Declaration on Environment and Development of 1992 stated that Green Technology means “environmentally sound technologies that protect the environment, are less polluting, use all resources in a more sustainable manner, recycle more of their wastes and products, and handle residual wastes in a more acceptable manner than the technologies for which they were substitutes“.
WIPO is playing a huge role in the acceleration of Green IP through WIPO Green (https://www3.wipo.int/wipogreen/en/). “WIPO GREEN is an online platform for technology exchange. It supports global efforts to address climate change by connecting providers and seekers of environmentally friendly technologies.”
India, with a huge focus on agriculture, could see smart agriculture come to the forefront. We could also see the rise of water and soil conservation mechanisms, soil re-carbonization and carbon sequestration, etc. In fact, since 2016, over half of the patents granted in India were related to green technologies. In sheer numbers, 61.186 patents were granted in this field, and over 90% of these technologies addressed waste management and alternative energy production methods.
Green IP is likely to lead to the rise of a huge amount of innovation. With innovation comes patent protection. Secrecy may be maintained to maximise market position for innovative technologies that will result in the rise of trade secrets. The aesthetic appearance of new innovations will come under the ambit of protection of design rights. Design rights may also be a valuable right as the use of 3D printing grows as a potentially more sustainable manufacturing technique. The rise of Green IP will also result in the rise of certified trademarks. Software and data evaluation will also play a decisive role in improving existing technologies in an environmentally friendly way. We will also see the rise of technology transfer licensing agreements as companies look to leverage technology developed by others to their advantage. Thus, the importance of Green IP will percolate to an increase in IP protection as well.
For those who are trailblazers in the field, having an IP checklist and an IP strategy will be of importance. Apart from this, the Indian government may also need to look at more subsidies and rebates for the development of Green IP. In a recently published report, Green Future Index 2022, India was ranked among a contingent labelled as “climate laggards”. The country’s COVID-19 recovery plan favours traditional industries, which is hampering the move to greener policies.
Nevertheless, subsidies in official fees for start-ups and MSME’s have pushed these industries to protect their intellectual property. Such a change can also be effected with rebates for the filings for Green IP. With the problems brought about by damage to the environment being closer to home, it is time for India to be at the forefront of the development of Green IP.
For those who are trailblazers in the field, having an IP checklist and an IP strategy will be of importance. Apart from this, the Indian government may also need to look at more subsidies and rebates for the development of Green IP.